IB Geography Extended Essays

Geography Extended Essay Topic Suggestions

As an experienced IB tutor with a profound understanding of the complexities of human and physical geography, I am excited to share a selection of intriguing topics for your Geography Extended Essay.

This collection is meticulously crafted to span the breadth of geographical inquiry, offering students topics that encapsulate both the physical contours of the Earth and the intricate patterns of human interaction within diverse landscapes. In guiding students through their academic explorations, I’ve witnessed how a well-chosen topic is not merely a task but a meaningful avenue for students to critically examine the intertwined relationship between environments and societies.

List of IB Geography EE Topics

This endeavor is an invitation for students to construct a comprehensive and insightful narrative, showcasing their ability to navigate the multifaceted dimensions of geography and present their findings with clarity and depth.

1. Human Geography

  1. Urbanization and its Impact on Quality of Life: How has urbanization in a specific city impacted the quality of life of its residents?
  2. Gentrification and Socioeconomic Change: How has gentrification in a particular neighborhood affected the socioeconomic status of its residents?
  3. Migration Patterns and Cultural Integration: How do migration patterns affect cultural integration in a specific urban area?
  4. The Geography of Homelessness: What are the spatial patterns of homelessness in a major city?
  5. Rural to Urban Migration: How does rural to urban migration impact the economic development of a specific area?
  6. The Impact of Tourism on Local Communities: How does tourism affect the economic and social fabric of a small community?
  7. Gender Inequality in Urban Spaces: How is gender inequality manifested in the urban planning of a specific city?
  8. The Effects of Globalization on Small Businesses: How has globalization impacted small businesses in a specific region?
  9. Urban Planning and Sustainable Development: How does urban planning contribute to sustainable development in a specific city?
  10. The Role of Public Transportation in Urban Development: How does public transportation impact urban development in a major city?

2. Physical Geography

  1. Climate Change and Coastal Erosion: How is climate change impacting coastal erosion in a specific coastal region?
  2. The Impact of Deforestation on Local Climate: How does deforestation affect the local climate in a tropical rainforest area?
  3. Glacial Retreat and Its Environmental Impact: What are the environmental impacts of glacial retreat in the Himalayas?
  4. Renewable Energy and Landscape Changes: How do renewable energy projects (like wind farms) impact the landscape in rural areas?
  5. Soil Erosion in Agricultural Regions: What factors contribute to soil erosion in a major agricultural region?
  6. The Impact of Natural Disasters on Landforms: How did a specific natural disaster (e.g., a hurricane) alter the landforms in its path?
  7. Water Resource Management in Arid Regions: How is water resource management conducted in a specific arid region?
  8. The Effects of Urbanization on Local Wildlife: How does urban expansion impact wildlife in surrounding areas?
  9. Mountain Ecosystems and Climate Change: How is climate change affecting mountain ecosystems in a specific region?
  10. Coral Reef Degradation and Environmental Factors: What environmental factors are contributing to coral reef degradation in a specific area?

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3. Environmental Geography

  1. Sustainable Practices in Urban Areas: How are sustainable practices being implemented in a specific urban area?
  2. The Impact of Pollution on Urban Health: How does air or water pollution affect health outcomes in a major city?
  3. Waste Management and Recycling Efforts: How effective are waste management and recycling efforts in a specific city?
  4. Environmental Policies and Their Local Impact: How have recent environmental policies impacted a specific local ecosystem?
  5. The Role of Green Spaces in Urban Environments: How do urban green spaces contribute to the environmental health of a city?
  6. Climate Change Adaptation Strategies in Coastal Cities: What strategies are coastal cities using to adapt to climate change?
  7. The Environmental Impact of Agriculture: How does intensive agriculture impact the environment in a specific region?
  8. Conservation Efforts in Endangered Ecosystems: How are conservation efforts impacting an endangered ecosystem in a specific area?
  9. Urban Heat Islands and Mitigation Strategies: What are the causes of urban heat islands in a major city, and how are they being mitigated?
  10. The Impact of Industrialization on Local Environments: How has industrialization affected the local environment in a specific area?

4. Economic Geography

  1. The Geography of Industry Location: Why are certain industries concentrated in specific geographic areas?
  2. Global Trade Patterns and Their Local Impact: How do global trade patterns affect the economy of a specific region?
  3. The Economic Impact of Natural Resources: How do natural resources contribute to the economic development of a specific area?
  4. Agricultural Practices and Economic Development: How do different agricultural practices impact economic development in a rural area?
  5. The Role of Technology in Economic Growth: How has technology-driven economic growth in a specific region?
  6. Economic Disparities in Urban Areas: What factors contribute to economic disparities in different urban neighborhoods?
  7. The Impact of Tourism on Local Economies: How does tourism economically impact a specific small town or region?
  8. Foreign Direct Investment in Developing Countries: What is the impact of foreign direct investment on the economy of a specific developing country?
  9. The Economic Effects of Urban Sprawl: How does urban sprawl affect the economies of suburban areas?
  10. The Role of Transportation in Economic Development: How does transportation infrastructure impact economic development in a specific region?

5. Geopolitical Issues

  1. Border Disputes and Their Geographic Implications: How do border disputes impact the geography of a specific region?
  2. The Geopolitics of Water Resources: How do geopolitical tensions arise over water resources in a specific area?
  3. The Impact of Colonialism on Modern Geopolitical Maps: How has colonialism shaped the current geopolitical landscape of a specific region?
  4. Resource Control and Political Power: How does control over natural resources (like oil) impact political power in a specific country?
  5. Geographic Factors in International Conflicts: How have geographic factors contributed to an international conflict in a specific area?
  6. Climate Change and Geopolitical Tensions: How is climate change exacerbating geopolitical tensions in a specific region?
  7. The Role of Geography in International Trade Agreements: How does geography play a role in shaping international trade agreements?
  8. Territorial Changes Post-War: How have territorial changes post-conflict affected the geography of a specific region?
  9. The Geopolitics of Energy Resources: How do energy resources influence geopolitical relationships in the Middle East?
  10. Maritime Boundaries and International Law: How do maritime boundaries affect international relations in the South China Sea?


Bringing our exploration of Geography Extended Essay topics to a close, I trust these suggestions have sparked your intellectual curiosity and geographic imagination. The journey of composing a Geography Extended Essay is a rich tapestry of detailed research, critical spatial analysis, and thoughtful synthesis of information.

As you fine-tune your topic and advance your investigation, consider this your opportunity to make a significant contribution to the field of geographic scholarship.

Your essay is a space to demonstrate your analytical acumen, your capacity for innovative thinking, and your ability to connect geographic theory with the complexities of the real world. Let your work be a reflection of your academic commitment and a celebration of geography’s pivotal role in shaping our understanding of the world’s diverse landscapes and cultures.

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